Andrássy, Gyula Sr., Count (1823–1890)

Hungarian politician. Participated in the 1848–49 Revolution and War of Independence. During the period of repression was sentenced to death in absentia. As a supporter of Ferenc Deák urged compromise with Austria. Hungarian Prime Minister between 1867–1871. Foreign Minister of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1871–79).

Arany, János (1817–1882)

Hungarian poet. Befriended Sándor Petőfi, together became celebrated poets of contemporary realist and nationalist literature. Participated in the 1848–49 Revolution and War of Independence. Wrote poetry, edited a literary magazine, translated Shakespeare and occupied senior positions in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Bălcescu, Nicolae (1819–1852)

Romanian politician, historian, a leader of the 1848 Wallachian Revolution. After the collapse of the revolution mediated in Transylvania between the divided Hungarians and Romanians, hence had an important role in the creation of the Projet de pacification. Died in Palermo.

Bánffy, Dezső, Baron (1843–1911)

Hungarian politician, governing party member of Parliament. Lord-lieutenant of Szolnok-Doboka and Beszterce-Naszód counties in 1875–1890. Between 1892 and 1895 Speaker of the Lower House of Parliament. Prime Minister (1895–99). From 1904 opposition M. P.

Batthyány, Lajos, Count (1806–1849)

Hungarian liberal politician, statesman. In the Reform Era, leader of the opposition in the Upper Chamber of the Diet. {3-811.} Prime Minister of the first Hungarian Government in 1848. Committed to upholding the constitutional principle and copromise with the emperor. On October 6, 1849 executed on charges of treason against the Habsburg monarchy.

Bem, Josef (1794–1850)

Polish general during the 1830 Polish Uprising, Commander-in-Chief of the Viennese military forces in October 1848. Hungarian honvéd Lieutenant General and the Commander-in-Chief of the Transylvanian Hungarian Army in 1848–49. Exiled after the defeat of the War of Independence. Died as a Turkish general.

Berzeviczy, Albert (1853–1936)

Hungarian historiographer, politician. Minister of Religion and Public Education, 1903–05. President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA), 1905–36.

Bethlen, István, Count (1874–1946)

Hungarian statesman. Significant political figure of the 20th-century Hungarian political scene. Member of the Hungarian peace delegation, 1920. Prime Minister of Hungary, 1921–1931. Opposed one-sided pro-German attitudes, becoming a leading politician of Anglo–American orientation. Deported to the Soviet Union by the Red Army.

Brătianu, Ion I. C. (1864–1927)

Romanian politician, who served as prime minister of Romania six times (1909, 1910–11, 1914–18, 1918–19, 1922–26, 1927). He was the chief spokesman for the ideal of Greater Romania, that is, the union of the old Regat (Moldavia and Walachia) with Transylvania.

Cuza, Alexandru Ioan (1820–1873)

First prince of the united Romania, from 1859 architect of national rural reform and peasant emancipation. His policies provoked the opposition of the political parties. In 1866 a group of officers, who had formed a conspiracy, forced him to abdicate and go into exile.

Czecz (Czetz), János (1822–1904)

Hungarian honvéd general and commander of an army corps in Transylvania during the 1848–49 War of Independence. Emigrated in 1849. Died as retired commander of the Argentine Institute for Military Geography.

Deák, Ferenc (1803–1876)

Hungarian statesman, a prominent figure of the Hungarian Reform Movement. Minister of Justice of the first Hungarian Government in 1848. After the defeat of the War of Independence pursued the policy of passive resistance. Had a major role in negotiations leading to the Compromise and the establishment of the dualist Austro–Hungarian Monarchy in 1867.

Eminescu, Mihai (1850–1889)

Romanian poet who transformed both the form and content of Romanian poetry. Creating a school of poetry that strongly influenced Romanian writers and poets in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Eötvös, József Baron (1813–1871)

Hungarian writer and statesman, whose life and writings were devoted to the creation of a modern democratic Hungary. Minister of Religion and Education of the first Hungarian Government in 1848. Left the country before the war broke out. Minister of Religion and Public Education, 1867–71. Father of Loránd Eötvös.

Fejérváry, Géza, Baron (1833–1914)

Hungarian military officer. Defense Minister, 1884–1903 and Prime Minister, 1905–1906. Confidant of Francis Joseph, commander of the Royal Guard. On the collapse of the Hungarian governing party Francis Joseph made him head of the new government in violation of rules of Parliament.

Ferdinand V (1793–1875)

The eldest son of the Austrian Emperor Francis I. Hungarian King and Austrian Emperor as Ferdinand I from 1835 to December 2, 1848, when he abdicated his throne.

Ferdinand I (1865–1927)

Son of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. King of Romania form 1914 to 1927, who, though a Hohenzollern and a believer in German strength, joined the Allies in World War I.

Francis Ferdinand (1863–1914)

Austrian-Este Archduke and Hungarian Royal Prince, heir to the crown of Austria and Hungary, deputy commander-in-chief. Morganatic marriage with Sophia Chotek in 1900. Killed by Serbian student Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo (June 28, 1914).

Francis Joseph I (1830–1916)

Habsburg Emperor of Austria from 1848 and King of Hungary from 1867. One of the longest reigning monarchs in European history. Established the dualist monarchy by dividing his Empire in 1867. Launched World War I by giving an ulimatum to Serbia.

Gábor, Áron (1814–1849)

Hungarian craftsman, honvéd major, artillery commander of the Székelyföld division during the 1849 summer campaign. As organizer and director of several military plants and gun factories, produced about 70 guns for the Transylvanian Honvéd Army during the 1848–49 Revolution and War of Independence.

Ghica, Ion (1816–1897)

Romanian politician. Prime Minister of Romania, 1866, 1870–71. Played a leading role in the revolutionary events of 1848, forced into exile, Prince of Samos between 1854 and 1859. Participated in overthrowing Alexandru Cuza, the first Prince of united Romania in 1866.

Haynald, Lajos (1816–1891)

Hungarian priest. In 1852 Bishop of Transylvania. Supported the union of Hungary with Transylvania. In 1863 condemned Habsburg absolutism and resigned. Archbishop of Kalocsa in 1867, and cardinal in 1879. Member of the Upper House. Amateur botanist.

Iancu, Avram (1824–1874)

Leader of Romanian insurgents of 1848–49. Conducted negotiations with both Bălcescu and Kossuth. Known among Romanians as the 'King of the Highlands.' Went insane.

István, Archduke (1817–1867)

Palatine József's son. Palatine of Hungary in 1847–48. Left the country in September, 1848.

Jászi, Oszkár (1875–1957)

Hungarian sociologist, political writer. In 1918 during the liberal democratic revolution member of the National Council. Minister without Portfolio in charge of national minorities policy in 1918–19. Saw the solution to the national minorities question in Hungary's transformation into a 'Switzerland of Eastern Europe.' Left Hungary in 1919, settled in the USA.

Carol I (1839–1914)

Original name Karl Eitel Friedrich, Prinz von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. First king of Romania, whose long reign (as prince, 1866–81, and as king, 1881–1914) brought notable military and economic development along Western lines but signally failed to confront the basic problems of an overwhelmingly rural nation.

Károlyi, Mihály, Count (1875–1955)

Hungarian politician. President of the National Council in October, 1918. Prime Minister of the government of the successful bourgeois democratic revolution. Lived in exile in France and in England from 1919 where he tried to establish connections for a Danube Confederation. Hungary's ambassador to Paris, 1947–49.

Kemény, Zsigmond, Baron (1814–1875)

Hungarian writer, publicist. Parliamentary Representative in 1848–49. Criticized Lajos Kossuth's policy in his political pamphlets in 1850–51. As an editor of the Pesti Napló and as a publicist assisted in publicizing the Deák Party's program and in the preparation of the 1867 Austrian–Hungarian Compromise.

Khuen-Héderváry, Károly, Count (1849–1918)

Hungarian politician, large estate owner, lord lieutenant. Twice prime minister (1903 and between 1910–12). Between 1883–1903 governor of Croatia. During his second term as prime minister formed the National Party of Work.

Klapka, György (1820–1892)

Hungarian military officer. General of the Hungarian Army in 1848–49. Interim minister of defense in May 1849, commander of the Komárom defense force. Emigrated after the defeat of the War of Independence. A major figure in the Romanian–Hungarian reconciliation initiatives in 1859–64. Returned to Hungary after the Compromise in 1867.

Kogălniceanu, Mihail (1817–1891)

Romanian statesman and reformer. One of the founders of modern Romanian historiography. The first permier of the nation of Romania in 1863–65. From 1876 to 1880 he held office as foreign minister and represented Romania at the Congress of Berlin (1878–79). Thereafter he served at the Romanian legation in Paris.

Kossuth, Lajos (1802–1894)

Hungarian reform politician, publicist. Finance Minister of the first Hungarian Government in 1848. President of the Hungarian Defense Committee. Governing President of Hungary in 1849. After the defeat of the War of Independence he lived in exile. Rejected the Austro–Hungarian Compromise until his death.

Kőrösi Csoma, Sándor (1784–1842)

Transylvanian orientalist. He left Hungary for Asia to research the Hungarians' country of origin in 1819-ben. In the 1820s he was the first from the Europeans who got knowledge about the Tibetian culture and the hundreds of lamaist literature. He lived in the 1830s in India. He died in malaria on his last journey to realize his original plan.

Metternich, Klemens L. W., Prince (1773–1859)

Austrian statesman. From 1821 Chancellor. Main representative of European absolutism following the French Revolution. Founder of the Holy Alliance. In 1848 fled to Great Britain from the revolution and returned only in 1851.

Mikó, Imre, Count (1805–1876)

Transylvanian politician, historiographer. One of the leaders of the Transylvanian reform generation before the 1848 Revolution. He founded the Transylvanian Museum Society (Erdélyi Múzeum Egyesület) in 1859 and gave his castle in Kolozsvár to them. Minister of Public Work and Transportation between 1867–70. One of the founders of the Kolozsvár university.

Mocsáry, Lajos (1826–1916)

Hungarian politician. Played an important role in the foundation of the Independence Party. Supporter of the idea of 'personal union' with Austria. Opposed to the expansion of the Dual Monarchy in the Balkans. Supported a moderate national minority policy.

Orbán, Balázs (1829–1890)

Transylvanian writer, polihistor, politician. On his trips to Europe he got sure about the fact that there was almost nothing known about his country in the West. He decided to write a book on the Székelyföld. The book (A Székelyföld leírása történelmi, régészeti, természetrajzi s népismereti szempontból) was published in Pest between 1868–73.

Petőfi, Sándor (1823–1849)

Hungarian poet. Leader of the so-called March Youth in 1848. Author of the hymn of the 1848 Revolution, the National Song. His radicalism prevented his election as a delegate for the Diet. Training officer as captain in the Hungarian army. Disappeared in the battle of Segesvár.

Szapáry, Gyula, Count (1832–1905)

Hungarian politician, Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, 1890–92. Nine times elected governing party M. P. Resigned form his post as prime minister in connection with a number of draft laws on religious policy under debate in Parliament at the time that he considered too liberal. Speaker of the Upper House.

Szász, Károly (1829–1905)

Hungarian poet, literary translator, Calvinist bishop. Participated in the 1848–49 War of Independence as the representative of the government. Teacher of mathematics at the Nagykőrös Calvinist grammar school in the 1850s. M. P. from 1865. His literary translations are of great significance.

Széchenyi, István, Count (1791–1860)

Hungarian statesman, political writer, founder of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Reformer whose practical enterprises represented an effort toward national development before the upsurge of revolutionary radicalism in the 1840s. Minister of Transportation and Public Labor in the first Hungarian Government in 1848. At the end of the 1850s wrote a number of speeches and pamphlets on the subject of absulutism. Committed suicide.

Széll, Kálmán (1843–1915)

Hungarian politician, Minister of Finance, 1875–78. Prime Minister, 1899–1903. Was related to Ferenc Deák through marriage. Was a governing party representative until 1911. Founded a bank and a model farm on his estate.

Szemere, Bertalan (1819–1869)

Hungarian liberal oppositionist politician. Minister of Interior of the first Hungarian Government in 1848. Member of the National Defense Committee, plenipotentiary government commissioner of Northern Hungary. Prime Minister from May, 1849. Emigrated after the defeat of the War of Independence.

Teleki, László, Count (1811–1861)

Hungarian politician. In 1848 representative of Pest County, later envoy of the Hungarian government to Paris. In 1859 with Lajos Kossuth and György Klapka formed the Hungarian National Directorate. In 1861 leader of radicals in Parliament regarding negotiations with the Habsburgs. Committed suicide.

Tisza, István, Count (1861–1918)

Hungarian politician, lawyer. Son of Kálmán Tisza. Twice prime minister (1903–1905, 1913–1917). Speaker of the House of Representatives, 1912–1913. In his second term of office as prime minister opposed joining the war but consented to the dispatch of an ultimatum to Serbia. Murdered in his home in 1918.

Tisza, Kálmán (1830–1902)

Hungarian statesman. Nephew of Count László Teleki. Held office at the Ministry of Culture in 1848. Emigrated for eghteen months in the face of repression. Prime Minister, 1875–1890. His office as prime minister was marked by — among other things — the economic consolidation of Dual Monarchy, and the modernization of state administration.

Türr, István (1825–1908)

Hungarian officer, played a significant role in the freedom fight for the united Italy. Got married with the niece of Napoleon III. The Corinthos channel was built according to his initiatives.

Wekerle, Sándor (1848–1921)

Hungarian politician, three times Prime Minister (1892–95, 1906–10 and 1917–18), Finance Minister (1889–95 and 1917–18). The first prime minister of Hungary who was not a nobleman. Modernized the currency system of the (Austro–Hungarian) Dual Monarchy. Passed religious laws allowing the separation of church and state.

Wenckheim, Béla, Baron (1811–1879)

Hungarian politician. Minister of the Interior (1867–69), Minister at Attendance to the King (Minister of Foreign Affairs) between 1871–1879. Prime Minister in 1875.

Wesselényi, Miklós, Baron (1796–1850)

Hungarian reform politician. In 1835 leader of the opposition in Transylvania and prominent figure in sessions of the Hungarian reform Diet. As a result the Habsburgs initiated court proceedings against him on a charge of treason. Was pardoned because of his poor eyesight, which indeed he eventually lost. Betweewn 1843–48 lord lieutenant in Transylvania.